Water is an inorganic, clear, tasteless, odorless, and almost colorless chemical liquid that is the primary component of the Earth’s hydrosphere and all known living beings’ fluids (in which it acts as a solvent). Even though it contains no calories or organic nutrients, it is necessary for all known forms of life. Its chemical formula is H2O, which means that each of its molecules is made up of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are joined together by covalent bonds. At a 104.45° angle, two hydrogen atoms are linked to one oxygen atom.
The liquid state of H2O at normal temperature and pressure is referred to as “water.” Precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog are both produced by it. Clouds are made up of suspended water droplets and ice in its solid state. Crystalline ice can precipitate in the form of snow when finely split. Steam or water vapor is the gaseous condition of water.
Water occupies 71% of the Earth’s surface, mostly in the form of seas and oceans. Water is found in small amounts as groundwater (1.7 percent), in Antarctica’s and Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps (1.7 percent), and in the air as vapor, clouds (ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001 percent ). Evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff are various processes that water goes through on its way to the sea.
The importance of water in the global economy cannot be overstated. Agriculture consumes around 70% of the freshwater utilized by humans. For many people across the world, fishing in both salt and fresh water bodies is an important source of sustenance. Boats convey a large portion of the long-distance commerce of commodities (such as oil, natural gas, and manufactured goods) across seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. In business and at home, large amounts of water, ice, and steam are utilized for cooling and heating. Water is a great solvent for a wide range of mineral and organic chemicals, and it is frequently utilized in industrial operations, as well as cooking and cleaning. Swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, diving, ice skating, and skiing are just a few of the sports and other types of enjoyment that include water, ice, or snow.
Water (H 2O) is a polar inorganic chemical that is a tasteless and odorless liquid that is virtually colorless with a tint of blue at room temperature. This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most researched chemical molecule, and its ability to dissolve a wide range of compounds has earned it the moniker “universal solvent.” This enables it to be the “solvent of life”: water in nature nearly always contains diverse dissolved compounds, necessitating the need of specific procedures to achieve chemically pure water. In typical terrestrial settings, water is the only common material that exists as a solid, liquid, and gas.
Water is one of the two formal names for the chemical molecule H 2O, along with oxidane; it is also the liquid phase of H 2O. The solid phase of water, ice, and the gaseous phase, water vapor or steam, are the other two prevalent forms of matter. Heat may produce phase transitions such as freezing (from water to ice), melting (from ice to water), vaporization (from water to vapor), condensation (from vapor to water), sublimation (from ice to vapor), and deposition (from ice to vapor) (vapor to ice).
Water is unique among liquids in that it loses density when it freezes. At 3.98 °C (39.16 °F), it reaches its maximum density of 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 lb/cu ft) at 1 atm pressure. Ice has a density of 917 kg/m3 (57.25 lb/cu ft) and expands by 9%. This expansion may apply tremendous pressure, causing pipelines to explode and rocks to break (see Frost weathering).
Water at 4 °C (39.2 °F) sinks to the bottom of a lake or ocean, while ice develops on the surface, floating on the liquid water. This ice protects the water underneath from freezing solid by insulating it. Most aquatic creatures would perish over the winter without this protection.
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