The width and height dimensions of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, are measured in pixels. Certain width and height combinations are standardized (e.g., by VESA) and given a name and an initialism that describes their measurements. In a display of the same size, a higher display resolution implies that projected photo or video material is crisper, and pixel art is smaller.
The preferred aspect ratio for mass market display sector goods has steadily evolved from 4:3 to 16:10, then to 16:9, and now to 18:9 for phones. The 4:3 aspect ratio is typically associated with older items, particularly those from the cathode ray tube period (CRT). The 16:10 aspect ratio was most popular from 1995 to 2010, but the 16:9 aspect ratio is more common in mass market computer monitors, laptops, and entertainment goods displays after 2010. On CRTs, there was frequently a mismatch between the computer resolution and the display aspect ratio, resulting in non-square pixels (e.g. 320 200 or 1280 1024 on a 4:3 display).
Older television cathode ray tube (CRT) screens, which were not easily convertible to a larger aspect ratio, used the 4:3 aspect ratio. Around the year 2000, as high-quality alternative technologies (such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays) were more widely available and less expensive, typical computer displays and entertainment items switched to a larger aspect ratio, first to the 16:10 ratio. The 16:10 aspect ratio allows for a compromise between broadcasting older 4:3 aspect ratio broadcast TV programming and seeing widescreen movies. However, about 2005, household entertainment displays (i.e., television sets) began to shift from 16:10 to 16:9 aspect ratios, allowing for better viewing of widescreen movies. Almost all major market entertainment screens were 16:9 by 2007. 1920 x 1080 (Full HD, Blu-native ray’s resolution) was the most popular resolution among the most frequently advertised entertainment market displays in 2011. In 2013, the next standard, 3840 2160 (4K UHD), was released for the first time.
In 2013, screens with a resolution of 2560 x 1080 (aspect ratio 64:27 or 2.370, but usually referred to as “21:9” for ease of comparison with 16:9) were available, closely resembling the conventional CinemaScope aspect ratio of 2.35–2.40. In 2014, “21:9” displays with 3440 x 1440 pixel size (real aspect ratio 43:18 or 2.38) were available.
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