Individual instructions are brought from the memory into the processor, which executes the specified operations. Data to be stored are also stored in the memory. Examples: – Add LOCA, R0 This instruction adds the operand at memory location LOCA, to operand in register R0 & places the sum into register.
What is Loca and R0?
Individual instructions are brought from the memory into the processor, which executes the specified operations. Data to be stored are also stored in the memory. Examples: – Add LOCA, R0. This instruction adds the operand at memory location LOCA, to operand in. register R0 & places the sum into register.
What does the instruction add Loca R0 does?
Adds the values of both LOCA and R0 and stores it in R0. Adds the value of LOCA with a value in accumulator and stores it in R0.
Which representation is most efficient?
Which representation is most efficient to perform arithmetic operations on the numbers? Explanation: The two’s complement form is more suitable to perform arithmetic operations as there is no need to involve the sign of the number into consideration.
Which is the lowest in memory hierarchy?
Most modern computer systems use a hard drive made of magnetic or solid state storage as the lowest level in the memory hierarchy (see Figure 8.4).
What is the high speed memory between main memory and CPU?
Explanation: It is called the Cache Memory. The cache memory is the high speed memory between the main memory and the CPU.
Which is faster speed memory?
DDR4 speeds start at 2400 MT/s and offer faster speeds and responsiveness than all other generations of memory. Optimized for gamers, professional designers, and enthusiasts who need to maximize data rates, DDR4 is for those who want the most from their system.
Is a high speed memory that is much faster than the main memory?
Cache Memory is a special very high-speed memory. … Cache memory is costlier than main memory or disk memory but economical than CPU registers. Cache memory is an extremely fast memory type that acts as a buffer between RAM and the CPU.
What are the three types of secondary memory?
There are three main types of secondary storage in a computer system:
- solid state storage devices, such as USB memory sticks.
- optical storage devices, such as CD, DVD and Blu-ray discs.
- magnetic storage devices, such as hard disk drives.
What is memory and its hierarchy?
In computer architecture, the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time. … Memory hierarchy affects performance in computer architectural design, algorithm predictions, and lower level programming constructs involving locality of reference.
Why is memory arranged in a hierarchy?
In the Computer System Design, Memory Hierarchy is an enhancement to organize the memory such that it can minimize the access time. The Memory Hierarchy was developed based on a program behavior known as locality of references.
Which is faster register or cache?
In a computer, a register is the fastest memory. … Cache memory is extremely fast memory that is built into a computer’s central processing unit (CPU). The data that is stored within a cache might be values that have been computed earlier or duplicates of original values that are stored elsewhere.
Why most of the DSPs use Harvard architecture?
Explanation: Harvard Architecture has dedicated buses for data and program memory and pipeline technique because of this architecture is complex. … Explanation: Most of the DSPs use harvard architecture because they provide a wider predictable bandwidth.
Which of the following is disadvantage of pipelining?
Disadvantages of Pipelining:
This prevents branch delays (in Pipelining, every branch is delayed) as well as problems when serial instructions being executed concurrently. 2. In pipelined processor, insertion of flip flops between modules increases the instruction latency compared to a non-pipelining processor.
What are the five hierarchy of storage devices or memory hierarchy?
The five hierarchies in the memory are registers, cache, main memory, magnetic discs, and magnetic tapes. The first three hierarchies are volatile memories which mean when there is no power, and then automatically they lose their stored data.
What is difference between primary and secondary memory?
While primary memory is the main memory of the computer which is used to store data or information temporarily, whereas secondary memory refers to external storage devices that are used to store data or information permanently.
How does memory hierarchy affect access time?
As we move from top to bottom in the Hierarchy, the access time increases. Performance: Earlier when the computer system was designed without Memory Hierarchy design, the speed gap increases between the CPU registers and Main Memory due to large difference in access time.
What is Ram in memory?
Random access memory (RAM) is a computer’s short-term memory, which it uses to handle all active tasks and apps.
What is main memory organization?
Main memory organization. The main memory stores instructions and data of the currently executed programs. Usually it is a random access memory RAM with reads and writes available. Sometimes, its part can be implemented as the fixed memory or read-only memory ROM.
What is main memory in memory hierarchy?
Typically, a memory unit can be classified into two categories: The memory unit that establishes direct communication with the CPU is called Main Memory. The main memory is often referred to as RAM (Random Access Memory). The memory units that provide backup storage are called Auxiliary Memory.
What are examples of secondary memory?
Secondary memory is known as a Backup memory or Additional memory or Auxiliary memory. Hard Drive, SSD, Flash, Optical Drive,USD Drive are some examples of secondary memories in computer.
Which of the following is a secondary memory?
Detailed Solution. An optical disk is also known as a CD-ROM or compact disk and it is a secondary memory device.